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(All free) 6 - sites contain: Aristotle’s Laws of Thought, Laws of Logic simplified for practical use. Used in over
12 Court Cases where Logic prevailed over the arts of Language that conceal Truth by grammatical ellipsis.
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Below, follows a partial article on the Laws of Thought & Logic, used successfully in all court cases. Please return for updates.
http://LogicLaw.co.uk/ & http://lolala.uk/– Two main sites.
Logic Law – Logic’s Laws – the Laws of Logic & Thought.
3 Laws of thought, Aristotle, plus 3 more Laws – new-species derived from practical use in valid arguments. 4 Moods & a valid categorical syllogism.
This section lists these laws & others in their simplest forms leaving the more detailed theories for you to research on the web’s most popular sites. Primary translation W. D, Ross and others. They are taken to be axiomatic & self evident with little or no need for persuasion, and may be considered as a pre-requisite to valid reasoning. Original source Aristotle’s Metaphysics, although the ideas may be traced to earlier philosophers.
The Aristotelian 3 Laws of Thought & what they state.
The 1st Law of Identity.
A thing is identical with itself, at the same time & in the same respect. A is A.
The 2nd law of Non-contradiction, also referred to as the law of contradiction.
A thing cannot be and not be at the same time & in the same respect. ~(A · ~A)
The 3rd Law of Excluded middle.
For any proposition, either the proposition is true or its negation is true. A or ~A, A ^ ~A
Symbols ~ = NOT, · = & or and, ^ = or.
‘same respect’ may be used in sense: significant aspect/view.’ . Lay comment is below here
Work in progress on links etc.
The 4 Moods, from Aristotle.
A: All men are mortal.
E: No man is immortal.
I: Some animals are bipeds.
O: Some animals are not bipeds.
They provide premises from which valid reasoning follows, categorically.
Most important for its influence on valid expressions of thought is the notion of distribution of the predicate. Take A: All men are mortal.
Subject – Men, predicate – mortal, copula – are, distribution – All. The Universal distribution All, like No, leaving some as partial. When the universal distribution is used with a second premiss, the reasoning is said to be valid, and a categorical conclusion follows.
The simple categorical Syllogism.
All men are mortal,
Socrates is a man,
Therefore Socrates is mortal. Therefore symbol = . .
© 2019 A. H. Winter
The 3 added species derived from the above laws & used successfully at court.
These laws combine parts of the above Aristotelian rationale, where their combination has been used at court to ask one simple question, of the Defendant’s testimony, that was unanswerable and ended the claim abruptly, due to its inconsistent contradictory rationale.
The law of difference.
The law of included middle.
The law of excluded context.
Familiarity with these laws, should be noted for their effect on language, which generally takes one of two forms, namely the literal Indicative fact-mood, or the subjunctive thought-mood: ref. Language §295 H. Sweet here..
These laws affect the general use of colloquial language, an example follows to demonstrate its general brevity & lack of completeness in all grammatical features, where essential meaning is usually understood, but carefully phrased expressions misdirect that understanding in a way similar to forcing a card upon an unsuspecting spectator. The important thing to remember is that when a verb is used in a sentence, it has at least six elements required for completeness, answering namely: What, When, From, To, How, Why? These can each be further qualified for specificity.
They may be used to persuade an innocent reader to be an accomplice to the deception. Further down, is show an example of how this was done in several Court cases, managed either by the Defendant’s witness testimony, or that put forward by his attorney.
A simple consequence of the Law of Identity upon everyday - colloquial language usage should be axiomatic & self evident for most readers.
The meaning of the word same, in logic, determines that two things are not the same unless its specific sense is qualified with a phrase for example: these two cars are the same: - for the purposes of valuation, driving, testing & usage etcetera.
It should be observed that in every detail they cannot be the same, In the phrase – the same respect – because the two things cannot occupy the same point in space at the same time. The spatial coordinates are sufficient to prove they are not the same in every respect. A more appropriate word would be similar.
The difference results in a semi-figurative expression being used for emphasis, often false, which when verified with the actual facts shall lack agreement. Even for a living thing to be the same as it was a moment ago implies that the digestive system has been frozen in time and the contents have undergone no change whatsoever. That is what one must contemplate when using the language: this is the same as that, or using such berms in testimony for truth. Some situations governs this use strictly.
It’s important to be aware of this distinction if you wish to verify a particular statement and come to terms with the rejection of the colloquial language for such purposes, especially when it comes to using fact mood statements that need to be proven. The simple requirement being that the words in the statement shall correspond with the facts they expressed. Figurative expressions are set aside for this topic.